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Climate Change may it Rest In Peace by Professor Will Alexander May 23, 2010

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Climate Change may it Rest In Peace by Professor Will Alexander

By Professor Will Alexander
Climate Realists, May 19, 2010

may it

Cause of death

1. Provably false assumption that human activities can influence global climate for which there is no scientifically believable evidence.

2. Provably false assumption that the increases in global temperatures are the cause of climatic changes. Multiyear variations in global climate are driven by variations in the receipt and poleward redistribution of solar energy via the atmospheric and oceanic processes, not temperature variations. This is high school physics.

3. Complete lack of numeracy skills and logical deductions by the climate change adherents.

4. Deliberate manipulation of climate change science to suit political objectives.

In memoriam

Read the rest here

The IPCC’s carcass by Will Alexander, S. African UN Scientist March 1, 2010

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The IPCC’s carcass by Will Alexander, S. African UN Scientist


February 26th 2010

Let me start by quoting from my last two emails

4 February 2010 Email 04/10


‘We are now witnessing the disintegration of the IPCC’. That is what I wrote in sixteen days ago.

The bombardment continues with increased ferocity. The IPCC cannot possibly survive.

Read the attached memo.

Anthropogenic global warming (AGW) was the blood that circulated through the veins of climate change science and kept it alive. In the short space of four months it has been shown that the globe ceased warming in 1995. Climate change science is dead.

The recent news was a great relief to those of us who have spent many hours of our lives searching in vain for the proclaimed consequences of climate change. We can now relax while watching the predators devouring the climate change carcass. See the attached and previous memos for details.

Those with a more philosophical view should consider the possible consequences of this failure on international, political, economic and scientific relations in the years ahead.

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COPENHAGEN COLLAPSE by Will Alexander, S. African UN Scientist December 21, 2009

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COPENHAGEN COLLAPSE by Will Alexander, S. African UN Scientist

Via Climate Realists, December 20, 2009

My memo with this title is attached together with my message titled Children of Africa.

Copenhagen has come and gone. It was a nail biting experience watching the developments on TV and downloading all the Internet items. Now I can get on with my life.

While you enjoy the Christmas festivities, give a thought to the millions of people in the world living in conditions of abject poverty.

Regards and a Merry Christmas,


Read the rest here

CLIMATEGATE CHAOS by Will Alexander, S. African UN Scientist. December 9, 2009

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CLIMATEGATE CHAOS by Will Alexander, S. African UN Scientist.

Via Climate Realists, December 7, 2009

Today is D-Day for Copenhagen. The organizers could not possibly have foreseen so much unfavourable publicity. Thirty million Google hits in three weeks!

The international stakes are monumental.

Never in the history of science has a single issue generated so much interest and controversy.

Looking closer, never in the history of science has there been such a flagrant disregard for the fundamental requirements of scientific endeavour. These are clearly described in the UNESCO/ICSU Declaration on science and the use of scientific knowledge (1999).

Please Click PDF file to read FULL report from Will Alexander

File attachment: Memo3309Climategatechaos.pdf

VICTORY AND THE CLIMATEGATE AFFAIR by Will Alexander December 3, 2009

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Via Climate Realists, December 2, 2009

This has been a thrilling two weeks observing the climate change battle. The ‘enemy’ is in full retreat. The war has yet to be won but they have run out of ammunition.

If you are interested in thrillers I strongly recommend that you relax in your armchair with your favourite refreshment at hand. Then read the attached documents plus the latest developments in the climategate scandal.

Also, keep an eye on the developments leading up to the critical Copenhagen discussions starting next week. Their objective is to produce a binding international agreement to replace the Kyoto Protocol that expires in 2012. It has become clear that major developed nations are retreating from their bold plans to prevent our planet from becoming uninhabitable within the next 100 years.

Two days ago the four major developing nations China, India, Brazil and South Africa issued a joint statement to the effect that they would walk out of the Copenhagen conference if the developed nations try to force their own terms on the developing world.

An unrelated development is that California has announced plans for actions in preparation for the possibility of a continuing drought.

Read the rest here

Mission Accomplished by Professor Will Alexander September 22, 2009

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Mission Accomplished by Will Alexander

Via Climate Realists, September 18th 2009

Image Attachment

The whole climate change issue is rapidly disintegrating. There is no possibility of a meaningful agreement being reached at Copenhagen for a successor to the Kyoto Protocol that expires in 2012. The developing nations have made it clear that combating poverty and increasing the welfare of their citizens are higher priorities.

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Collapse of Climate Alarmism by Professor Will Alexander September 9, 2009

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Collapse of Climate Alarmism by Will Alexander

Via Climate Realists
September 7, 2009

Climate alarmism is on its deathbed.

A summary of the whole climate change charade is in the attached Memo 27/09.

As always feel free to pass this on to anybody who has an interest.



By the end of this year the whole charade of climate alarmism will be in tatters. These are some examples of the events leading up to Copenhagen in December from CCNet with acknowledgement, followed by my interpretations…

Please download PDF file to read FULL article from Will Alexander

File attachment: Collapse of Climate Alarmism.pdf

Climate alarmism is a runaway fire by Professor Will Alexander August 29, 2009

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Climate alarmism is a runaway fire

By Professor Will Alexander
Via Email, 21 August 2009

Climate alarmism is like a runaway fire. It started quietly with a genuine concern. It was like lighting a match beneath a pile of flammable material. The environmentalists and politicians took over. The fact that the basic science is demonstrably false is no longer an issue.

The welfare of nations is at risk.

Memo 25/09

Climate alarmism is a runaway fire

Friday 21 August 2009

Child in an informal settlement looking at burning tyres. Photo in Beeld 29 July 2009.

I had no sooner sent off my last memo The end is nigh on 10 August, when my prediction of imminent droughts was fulfilled. On 12 August our Minister of Water and Environmental Affairs announced that parts of the lower Limpopo River catchment have been declared a water supply disaster area. This is in the far northern region of South Africa. The Albasini Dam that supplies the Louis Trichardt area is only 26 percent full. The Middle Letaba Dam is only 6 percent full.

On Sunday 16 August, prayers for rain were held in George, which is in the southern coastal area of South Africa. The dams in this region are also at a very low level. These two events not only confirm my prediction but also the views of others that global climatic disturbances are on the way. How will they affect the Copenhagen discussions and beyond?

Climate change

This is what the Secretary General of the United Nations had to say earlier this month.

We have just four months to secure the future of our planet. If we fail to act, climate change will intensify droughts, floods and other natural disasters. Water shortages will affect hundreds of millions of people. Malnutrition will engulf large parts of the developing world. Tensions will worsen. Social unrest – even violence – could follow.

This is a very serious message coming from the world’s highest elected official. But why did the Secretary General not address these climate change concerns within the wider context of humanitarian concerns instead of making it the greatest threat to our planet, which it is not?

Let me make one point abundantly clear. Since the establishment of the IPCC in 1988 not a single person in South Africa has died as a result of provable climate change. But thousands have died from poverty-related starvation, malnutrition and disease. How dare those who call themselves scientists deliberately suppress this information? How dare they ignore the suffering of all these people? How dare they steadfastly refuse to participate in multidisciplinary studies where their alarmist theories can be demonstrated to be without foundation?

Also, there is also no statistically believable evidence of linkages between climate change, and increases in the occurrence and magnitude of floods, droughts and threats to water supplies.

Climate alarmist tactics are obstructing the right of these people to progress towards the normal lives that those in the western nations enjoy.

Runaway fires

This is the season of runaway fires in the southern hemisphere. The vegetation is dry after the rainless winter. These fires are beneficial in the grazing areas. If you fly northwards across Africa in the early evening there will be numerous twinkles of light from the controlled burning of the veld below you. This is to encourage growth after the first spring rains.

The environmentalists complain bitterly. Think of the countless grasshoppers and other insects destroyed by the fires. [Think of all those locusts and other plagues if they are not!] Farmers control the fires by burning firebreaks early in the season. However, fires can sweep across the firebreaks during high winds and cause havoc.

In our part of the world there are other areas vulnerable to runaway fires. These are the crowded shacks in the informal settlements around our cities. Not only do the shacks consist of flammable material, but in the absence of electricity, the inhabitants use flammable paraffin for cooking and lighting. The shacks are crowded together leaving no room for firefighting vehicles. Unlike those living in the adjacent suburbs, the occupants of the shacks cannot afford insurance. When the fires occur they lose everything that they possess.

There is rising unemployment and increasing poverty in these settlements due to the economic conditions that originated in the affluent countries of the northern hemisphere. Like a runaway fire this global recession has spread out of control across the world. (The countries that caused the economic recession now demand that the innocent developing countries share their burden by implementing costly measures to combat climate change.)

In South Africa, the number of homeless people is rising. These people are clamouring for basic services of housing, water, electricity and sanitation. The government cannot keep up with their demands. As a result another flammable situation is developing. The burning of old vehicle tyres on the streets and obstructing the traffic has become a means of attracting attention and getting their message across.

The affluent nations influenced by heartless and scientifically disabled climate alarmists consider that the rising amount of so-called greenhouse gases (mainly carbon dioxide) discharged into the atmosphere from coal burning power stations and transport, are a far greater threat to national welfare than unemployment, poverty, malnutrition and disease. Nowhere in the climate change literature will you find a balance between humanitarian concerns and environmental concerns.

Instead, while our people are starving, powerful and influential bodies such as the G20 nations, meet regularly at international pleasure resorts to discuss the situation over delicious meals and refreshments.

Unfortunately, like a runaway fire, the situation is now out of control. A firefighting mechanism (the successor to the Kyoto protocol that expires in 2012) has to be established in Copenhagen not later than December this year. The likelihood of success is receding by the day.


The end is nigh by Professor Will Alexander August 11, 2009

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The end is nigh

By Professor Will Alexander
Via ICECAP, August 10, 2009

Climate is never constant on any time or space scales. It varies from day to day all the way through to decades, centuries and beyond. It also varies from our backyards all the way through to the other side of the world. The climate of the Kalahari Desert is not replicated anywhere in Europe. Despite all this we are told that the overwhelming consensus of (northern hemisphere) scientists is that the end of the world awaits us if we don’t control our carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere. These are from coal burning power stations, motor and air transport, gas stoves and charcoal braais.

How can we possibly live without these essentials of modern life? Close your eyes and imagine the effect of blackouts in our homes. Imagine deserted streets. Imagine the effect on our tourist industry. Imagine the collapse of our economy. Imagine growing social unrest and a return of xenophobic conflicts. Imagine the conflicts with our neighbouring countries over the remaining water in our rivers. Yet none of these consequences are taken into account when the climate alarmists start preaching their distorted gospels.

The problem goes even deeper. Millions of children on the African continent are starving. Yet these same ‘scientists’ are more concerned with threats to our wildlife, tadpoles and water lilies than with humanitarian concerns. Photographs of dead crocodiles in the Olifants River are more newsworthy than those of sickly children with protruding ribs because they have nothing to eat.

Fortunately all this alarmism is about to come to an end. Like the pendulum of a clock, the world’s climate is on the verge of changing phases from warming back to cooling. These changes do not take place gradually. The climate alarmists are about to be exposed for what they are.

Unwisely, the South African authorities have deliberately ignored the views of those of us who challenge the scientific validity of the whole climate change issue. We have had to suffer all sorts of insults and indignities. Now at last our smiles are returning. Last week the TV programme Carte Blanche repeated its bedtime scare stories. Viewers were shown scenes of chunks of Greenland glaciers collapsing into the sea as a result of global warming. This is nonsense. Glaciers are rivers of ice that have been flowing into the sea since the beginning of time.

These scenes were followed by shots of a South American glacier in full bloom in 1928, and only scraps of snow and ice left last year. The audience was not told that the 1928 photo was taken in mid winter and the recent photo in mid summer.

Then there were those frightening sketches of Table Mountain becoming an island surrounded by the rising ocean levels as the Antarctic ice melted.
Fortunately the TV programme did not include the two photographs of Marion Island that have featured in the newspapers. The island is halfway between South Africa and the Antarctic. One photograph showed the lone glacier on the island sweeping across the foreground. The other showed that the glacier had disappeared as a result of global warming. The producer of the photograph underestimated the intelligence of the viewers. The second photograph was an enlargement of the barren background in the first photograph!

These are the depths to which climate alarmists are prepared to descend to in order to persuade the public and generate research funding regardless of the truth or the consequences. Eventually they get caught up in their own spider webs. Read the full article here.

COLLAPSE OF CLIMATE CONSENSUS by Professor Will Alexander May 6, 2009

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By Professor Will Alexander

Received via email, Friday 1 May 2009

Following this climate change issue is like watching one of those crime thrillers on TV. They all have a surprise ending.

This whole climate change issue has three distinct components. They are scientific, economic and political. It started with the science. After Gleneagles it shifted gear. The economists under the leadership of Nicholas Stern took over. Then the politicians under the influence of Al Gore saw huge opportunities. It became like a ballet performance. All three parties danced to the same tune.

The climax is rapidly approaching. All the nations of the world (there are about 190 of them) have to agree to adopt very costly emissions control measures by December this year. It is like expecting a crowd of people, rich and poor, to cut off their little fingers in unison.

True to those crime thrillers, the plot thickens. Read the attached memo for details. Now I challenge you to identify the surprise ending.

Let me give you a clue. About 10 years ago I appeared as an expert witness before the 16 judges of the International Court of Justice in The Hague. I often imagine a repeat performance. It would have to be on behalf of the EU. I would have no difficulty in proving beyond reasonable doubt, that their emissions could not possibly have caused droughts, floods and environmental damage in Africa.

On the other hand, if I succeeded, it would deprive Africa of billions of dollars of compensation from the EU and the USA.

Of course none of this will happen. So how will it all end?

Watch this space.

Memo 19/09

Collapse of climate consensus

Will Alexander

Friday 1 May 2009

This is their school bus. Photo Richard Alexander, Windhoek.

The glue that held this whole climate change alarmism together was one word – ‘consensus’. Whenever anybody objected, they were told that there was an overwhelming consensus that supported climate change science.

In 2005 the academies of science of the world’s leading nations addressed an appeal to the G8 nations ahead of a meeting at Gleneagles, in the UK. They urged the G8 nations to take measures to reduce their dangerous greenhouse gas emissions (principally carbon dioxide). Appreciating that this would cost a lot of money, the UK Prime Minister Tony Blair appointed a British economist Nicholas Stern to review the whole issue. He duly warned the world that while these emissions reduction measures would affect world economies, failure to do so would result in the end of civilisation on this planet. We had no option.

There was one issue that this renowned economist failed to predict. It was the collapse of the world’s economy. The world is now experiencing its most serious financial crisis since the Great Depression of the early 1930s. But he failed to predict it. How then can we trust his prediction relating to the economic consequences of climate change by the end of the century?

Incidentally, at Gleneagles, the world’s most wealthy nations also promised to provide financial assistance to Africa’s struggling economies. But this was not forthcoming. Africa has not forgotten these failed promises. It has repeatedly stated that Africa requires trade not aid. This has also not been forthcoming.

Bali roadmap

With the proclaimed overwhelming scientific consensus and failed promises of economic aid in mind, let us skip to the UNFCCC conference held in Bali in December 2007. The negotiations failed to reach a financial consensus. Instead a roadmap was negotiated that would lead to a unanimous agreement by all nations. It had a deadline of December 2009. This was required because the Kyoto Protocol expires in 2012.

The Bali target was a 20% reduction in global emissions by 2020 with further reductions thereafter. It was also agreed that the developing nations, including South Africa, would receive financial assistance from the wealthy nations.

Consensus consequences

The global economic recession/depression upset the apple cart. There were also other factors. On the scientific front the globe stopped warming several years ago despite worldwide increases in undesirable emissions. The climate alarmists were compelled to increase their rhetoric or face losing their research funding. They now predict that the consequences will be larger and will occur sooner than previously predicted.

What the alarmists failed to appreciate is the consequence of their consensus conclusion that these emissions have already caused serious increases in floods, droughts, environmental and health damage in Africa. Africa is just across the Mediterranean from the source of these emissions.

Clearly, African nations now have a legally incontestable claim for damages from the EU nations. Who would win if the AU took the EU before the International Court of Justice in The Hague and demanded astronomical compensation for past damage and annual future damages until such time that the EU reduces its damaging emissions?

Now the long-suffering African nations are on the war path.

National submissions

The United Nations has just published the submissions by the parties ahead of the next round of discussions to be held in June. This is yet another attempt to break the growing deadlock. These submissions can be downloaded via the Reuters website

http://www.reuters.com/articlePrint?articleId=USLS544223 which leads you to the United Nations website.

On 14 April Algeria produced a submission on behalf of the African group. South Africa expanded on this in its negotiating text dated 24 April. It consists of six pages. The short quotes below are directly from the submissions. Comments in square brackets are mine.

Submission by Algeria on behalf of the African group.

The shared vision must unite the countries of the world in further building an inclusive, fair and effective climate regime, recognizing that solving the climate problem will only be possible if it is undertaken in the context of developing countries need for development space.

Africa is one of the most vulnerable continents to climate change, with major development and poverty eradication challenges and limited capacity for adaptation. International co-operation of implementation of adaptation action in Africa is urgent and must be accorded the same level of priority and emphasis is that given to mitigation.

By 2020 the scale of financial flows to support adaptation in developing countries must be at least $67 billion/year.

A firewall must be maintained between mitigation commitments by all developed countries and mitigation actions by developing countries. [Emphasis in the original.]

In numerical terms: Annex 1 Parties [i.e. developed countries] reduce their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40% below the 1990 levels by 2020 and at least 80% to 95% below 1990 levels by 2050, to make a meaningful and fair contribution to choosing the lowest level of stabilisation assisted by the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. At lower stabilisation levels, the additional climate impacts are unacceptable to Africa. [My emphasis. Note these two very stringent requirements.]

A 2020 target for the scale of financial flows to support  mitigation in developing countries is set at $200 million by 2020 (0.5% of GDP of Annex II parties). [This is in addition to the $67 billion for adaptation.]

Provision of finance, technology and capacity-building must be legally binding, with consequences for non-compliance. Action by developing countries is dependent on the level of support by developed countries.

Submission by South Africa.

South Africa supports the submission by Algeria on behalf of the African Group, on 14 April 2009, on key elements of the negotiation text under the Bali Action Plan.

A comprehensive and action-oriented international programme and adaptation implementation is established, aimed at reducing vulnerability and building resilience of developed countries to impacts that are already occurring [My emphasis.]

In numerical terms Annex I parties shall, individually or jointly, ensure that the aggregate anthropogenic carbon dioxide equivalent emissions of the greenhouse gases are reduced by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2020 and at least 80% to 95% below 1990 levels by 2050, to make a meaningful contribution to achieving the lowest level of stabilisation assisted by the IPCC’s Fourth Assessment Report. At less ambitious stabilisation levels, the additional climate impacts are unacceptable to Africa.  [My emphasis.]

The register is a mechanism to enhance the implementation of the relevant provisions of the Convention related to mitigation action to be taken by developing countries, in the context of their overriding poverty alleviation and sustainable development priorities. [My emphasis. This is a convenient escape mechanism.]

The level of mitigation efforts by developing countries shall be commensurate with the level of support received. South Africa would expect the level of support for mitigation actions by developing countries to reach $200 billion annually by 2020. [i.e shared by all developing countries.]

As shared vision for an inclusive, fair and effective climate regime must be based on sound science, a balance between climate and development imperatives, and a balance between adaptation and mitigation. As shared vision combines all the above of its in order to achieve the full, effective and sustained implementation of a convention is through a long-term cooperative action, now, up to and beyond 2012. [Sound science?]

Joint submission by Australia, Belarus, Canada, the European Community and its member states, Iceland, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Russia, Switzerland, and Ukraine.

This is the list of achievable reductions by 2020 with the reference year in parentheses.

Australia: -5% up to -15% (2000).

Canada: -20% (2006).

European Union: -20% to -30% (1990).

Compare these with the African demands of -40% (1990). This is in an unbridgeable gap. There is no way whatsoever that any nation in the world can reduce its emissions by 40% during a 10-year period.

Submission by India.

No mention is made of specific targets or specific financial requirements.

Adaptation needs to receive the same level of attention as that given to mitigation for reasons that the adverse effects of climate change can pose a serious risk to a sustainable economic and social development.

The financial resources for enhanced adaptation action should be adequate, agreed for costs, predictable, timely and stable with provisions of direct, simplified and expeditious access to developing country parties.

Submission by China.

China welcomes the opportunity to submit additional views paragraph 1 of the Bali action plan and submits the following as elements to be included in the negotiating text.

The most urgent requirement at present is to set the mid-term emission reduction targets for developed country parties, rather than a general and long-term global goal. Only with such mid-term target being clearly determined, is meaningful to talk about any long-term goals for missions reductions. All developed country parties to the convention shall commit to reduce their GHG emissions by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2020. [Note the reference to 40% reduction by 2020 insisted by the African group.]

The right to development is a basic human right that is undeprivable. Economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first and overriding priorities of the developing countries. [This is exactly my view. See photo above.]

Developed country parties shall have deeper cuts in their GHG emissions so as to ensure adequate spaces for developing countries to achieve their goals of substantive development and eradication of poverty.

Given historical responsibility, equity and development stage, the Annex I parties as a group shall reduce the GHG emissions by at least 40% below 1990 levels by 2020.

No submissions by the USA were included in the United Nations’ news release. This must be causing a lot of headaches.

My interpretations

These are political negotiating positions. The question is whether it will be possible to reach a consensus agreement by December. However, there are further complications.

The following are extracts from a report in our morning newspaper Business Day on 28 April.

IMF warns of ‘human calamity’. Call on member nations to speed up aid and give even more to the most vulnerable

How to help the developing world cope with the worst global slump since the Great Depression was top of the agenda for the bank’s steering committee meeting that wrapped up the sibling institutions’ two day talks.

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) have warned the global economic crisis is turning into a “human calamity”, and called on members to speed up pledged aid and give even more to help the most vulnerable. At the end of meetings in Washington on Sunday, the two multilateral lending institutions told their 185 member countries that the worst global slump in generations had already driven more than 50-million people into extreme poverty.

“The global economy has deteri­orated dramatically…. Developing countries face especially serious con­sequences as the financial and eco­nomic crisis turns into a human and development calamity,” the IMF and World Bank joint development committee said.

“No one knows how long this crisis will last,” World. Bank president Robert Zoellick said. While the bank’s finances were “in a strong position to heIp our partner countries”, the crisis put the United Nations’ Millennium Deve]opment Goals to reduce poverty by 2015 increasingly at risk.

The World Bank launched a $55bn infrastructure investment pro­gramme on Saturday. It is designed specifically to help developing countries weather the global slump.

“The Bank and IMF said all the right things, but the true test is whether their rich-country sharehold­ers will turn words into action,” said Marita Hutjes of Oxfam International.

Meanwhile, China called for reform of the global currency system, dominated by the dollar, which it said was the root cause of the crisis. Chi­nese Finance Vice-Minister Li Yong said the “flawed” international mon­etary system was “a major defect in the current international economic governance structure”. Sapa-AFP

Collapse of scientific consensus

The following are some pertinent reports published in recent issues of CCNet.

As a result of promoting environmental alarmism, Western governments find themselves trapped in a perilous, yet largely self-constructed catch. As long as climate change is elevated as the principal liability of industrial countries, as long as Western CO2 emissions are blamed for exacerbating natural disasters, death and destruction around the globe, green pressure groups and officials from the developing world will continue to insist that the West is liable to recompense its exorbitant carbon debt by way of wealth transfer and financial compensation. Ultimately, there is now a growing risk that the whole global-warming scare is creating more anti-Western hostility and further loss of influence on the international stage.
–Benny Peiser, Financial Post, 8 April 2008

Gradually the world of science has evolved to the dangerous point where model-building has precedence over observation and measurement, especially in Earth and life sciences. In certain ways, modelling by scientists has become a threat to the foundation on which science has stood: the acceptance that nature is always the final arbiter and that a hypothesis must always be tested by experiment and observation in the real world.
–James Lovelock, The Vanishing Face of Gaia: A Final Warning

Can we solve climate change? No we can’t, according to a leading climate change professor.  Mike Hulme, professor of Climate Change at East Anglia University, reckons we are heading up a “dead end” by putting climate change science at the top of the political agenda. In fact he thinks we are pretty arrogant to think we can control the climate.
–Mike Swain, The Mirror, 27 April 2009

The international battle over global warming and how to deal with it will not be decided over scientific issues. It is being determined by governments and law-makers on the basis of national interests – that is on the basis of hard-nosed economic, political and geo-political considerations. Nowhere can the veracity of this realpolitik be better observed than in Europe and the United States, where costly climate policies face mounting opposition and gridlock amid deepening economic turmoil.
–Benny Peiser, Post-Kyoto and the Impasse of International Climate Negotiations
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